Teaching Students to Determine Credibility of Online Sources (Free Student Handout!)
Two important revolutions have come together to make online source credibility testing an important skill to teach our students:
- The Common Core emphasizes research and informational texts.
- Our students have incredible access to online sources.
Even though most of my students walk around all day with the internet in their pockets, they do not know innately how to determine the credibility of a source for my research paper, infographics, and other assignments. More alarmingly, they consistently report bad habits including the use of fast information sources that they know are not reliable and the use of copy/paste functions to get homework done in a hurry. In order to send students into college and into the world with valid research habits, I consciously teach students a checklist to determine the credibility of a source. I go through the list with them a few times and make them use it regularly in the hope that they will internalize the information for future use. Here is my credibility check list:
- Download in .doc form, which can be edited. It will save to your download folder.
- Download in PDF form, which will open in your browser.
I’d love to hear your tips, questions or suggestions to add to the list! Leave a comment below and add to the conversation.
Determining the Credibility of Online Sources:
When using online sources for formal research, you must determine credibility in order to validate the reliability of your own research. Keep in mind: Articles from peer reviewed online journals like those found in JSTOR, EBSCO Host, and other databases include all citation information and can easily be found credible. Sites like Wikipedia, blogs, and social media are open forums for non-experts and while they may be great brainstorming tools, they are not credible sources for formal research. With so many sites in the spectrum between JSTOR and Wikipedia, it can be difficult to determine credibility, so here is a checklist to go through when making an evaluation:
- What is your topic?
- You should always look for sources appropriate to your topic. For example, if you are researching heart disease, you should look at sites run by The American Heart Association and not a side note blog post from Huffington Post.
- What is the URL?
- Always be sure to record the entire URL. You will need this information and more to cite properly. Be sure you are aware of the root site of the page you found.
- Is the extension appropriate to the content?
- .gov and .mil are government run sites, .edu means it is an education site, and .com/.org/.co can be purchased online. This does not mean that .com/.org/.co are not reliable, but you should make note of the extension for overall reliability testing.
- Who is the author?
- You should use sites that have a stated author. Sometimes the author’s name will be on the article or page, and sometimes you will have to dig a little deeper to an “about the author” page or a link on the main site.
- Is there contact information for the author?
- Credible authors will have some type of contact information. It may be in the form of an email, phone number, address, or online submission form.
- What are the author’s credentials?
- Look for authors who hold degrees, experience, titles, or memberships to recognizable professional groups relating to the topic.
- Does the site appear to be professional?
- Look for sites that are professional, clean, and organized. For most research, personal blogs are not a reliable source.
- Are there typos and other errors?
- Grammar, spelling, and other errors are a hint that the information has not been reviewed carefully and may be suspect.
- What is the purpose of the site?
- Are they trying to persuade? educate? preach? other?
- Is there bias? If so, what is it?
- For example, if you take medical information from a cigarette company or sports information from a particular college, understand the bias. Bias does not mean you can’t use the page; you just have to be aware and use the information accordingly.
- Is this a primary or secondary source?
- The closer to the primary source a page is, the more reliable the information.
- Are there citations or a bibliography?
- These will help you determine the legitimacy of secondary sources. Ask yourself if the bibliography shows quality research material.
- Is there a date for the publication/revision of the page?
- You will need this information to cite properly. It is also important to know that your information is current. You don’t want to research current educational trends and use high school drop out rates from 1990.
- Does the information seem in depth and comprehensive?
- You want to look for sources dedicated to the information you are looking for, not a source, which briefly touches on your topic.
- Overall Evaluation:
- Based on this list, do you find this source to be credible? Be sure that you are able to justify your evaluation with evidence.
Citing an online source:
Please refer to the Owl at Purdue for information on citing electronic sources in MLA or APA format: Owl.English.Purdue.edu
What would you add, take away or ask about this list? I’d love to know!