Using Appropriate Tone in Writing #engchat

One of the most difficult literary devices to recognize as well as convey is tone.  Helping students to identify tone in literature can be daunting, and helping students create the appropriate tone in their own original writing can also be a chore.  The following are some tips to help students grasp the concept of tone.  I have also created a free activity called “Using Appropriate Tone” to help students grasp the idea of tone, and –trust me–kids will LOVE this activity!

The tone of a piece refers to the author’s attitude toward the subject.  Finding the tone can seem like a daunting task at first; however, you can ask yourself a few simple questions to help you figure it out.  Examples of these questions are: Is it formal or informal?  Serious or lighthearted?  Is there an emotion attached such as sadness, anger, lust, love, contentment, or consternation?  Is the author taking a humorous approach to the subject?  Is he or she being ironic, sarcastic, witty, contemplative, etc.?  To find the answers to these questions and properly identify the tone, you have to look at the author’s use of language including such tools as for word choice, phrasing, and use of or omission of details.

The same idea must be used when writing an original piece.  It is important that students use the correct diction (choice of words) to help convey the way they are feeling.  Ask students how difficult they find understanding a person’s tone through text message or emails.  Have they ever been confused by what the person is saying?  Have they assumed a person was serious when they were actually joking?  If the words are not laid out right, we can easily be confused by a person’s writing, and get the wrong idea of a person’s intentions or meaning.

Another way to think of tone is like tone being the background paper on which you write a note.  For example, if you are writing a note telling your mother how much you love her and appreciate her, and in the end, ask to borrow the car keys for the night, you may want to write your note on a pink, flowery piece of paper rather than on the back of a cardboard pizza box you pulled out of the trash.  The choice of paper gives the reader an idea of the message you are sending.  Similarly, you don’t want to give someone a note to let them know you would rather just “be friends” on a piece of pink paper with red hearts!  The words you choose to use in your writing act like those pieces of paper — you must choose your words wisely in order to get the right point across.

For helping students grasp the concept of using the right tone, please download Using Appropriate Tone, free on TeachersPayTeachers!  If you love it, please leave feedback and tell others.

Thanks for stopping by!

Annotated Common Core Standards ELA, Grades 9-10

Here is the annotated version of the Common Core Standards for ELA for Grades 9-10.  I hope you find this helpful, as I have worked diligently to make meaning out of some pretty vague and broad standards. The boxes indicate where I have explained/translated/interpreted the particular standard.  I hope this helps you feel, well…not so lost when working to integrate the Common Core Standards in your curriculum.  As always, please be sure to leave feedback!  I would love to hear what you think–especially if you agree or disagree with my interpretation…let’s discuss!

Also, if you would like a “pretty” version that you can download for free, simply go to http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Annotated-Common-Core-Standards-for-ELA-Grades-9-10 to download from my Secondary Solutions TPT store.

 

GRADES 9-10
COMMON CORE STANDARDS: ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
READING: LITERATURE
KEY IDEAS AND DETAILS
• RL.9-10.1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to read a fictional passage or text, understand and articulate what the text directly as well as indirectly states in order to make an assumption about or respond to prompts from the text.
 Students should be able to identify, extract, and cite text to thoroughly support the student’s response.
• RL.9-10.2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to articulate the theme(s) or central idea(s) of a fictional text, providing specifics from the text to support the response.
 Students should be able to articulate how specific characters, setting, and elements of the plot reveal and contribute to the theme of the text.
 Students should be able to write a summary of the text that is free of bias and personal opinions.
• RL.9-10.3. Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.
 Students should be able to identify different character types, including main and subordinate, round and flat, dynamic and static.
 Students should be able to identify character motivations, how characters conflict with and influence each other, and how characters respond and change as the plot moves forward.
 Students should be able to articulate how certain incidents in a text further the plot, reveal character traits directly or indirectly, or provoke characters to make decisions based upon the incident.
CRAFT AND STRUCTURE
• RL.9-10.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone).
 Students should be able to identify the use of figurative language, i.e. metaphor, simile, personification, imagery, hyperbole, etc. in a text.
 Students should be able to demonstrate the meaning of a word or phrase within the passage, based upon the context clues of the sentence.
 Students should be able to identify shades of meaning of words and phrases.
 Students should be able to articulate the meaning and impact of diction, including the use of dialect, slang, accents, etc.
 Students should be able to demonstrate the ability to recognize and explain the meaning and impact of the meaning of specific word choice on a passage.
 Students should be able to analyze analogies or allusions to other texts, including the meaning of the analogy or allusion and how it contributes to or helps clarify or support the themes and/or central idea of the text.
 Students should be able to articulate how figurative language and sound devices affect the reader and assist in the overall understanding and enjoyment of a text.
 Students should be able to identify the mood and tone of a passage, and the meaning and impact of word choice on the mood and tone of the passage.
 Students should be able to articulate how specific word choice and language affects the overall meaning of a work, represents a specific time and place, reveals an author’s attitude, or sets an informal or formal tone.
• RL.9-10.5. Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing, flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.
 Students must be able to identify theme, setting, and other basic elements of plot.
 Students should be able to recognize elements that contribute to the theme, setting and plot within a fictional text.
 Students should be able to articulate differences in structure between fictional texts, including drama, poetry, novels, short stories, etc.
 Students should be able make predictions based on the information given in the text.
 Students should be able to articulate the differences in text structure, including the effects of foreshadowing, flashback, flashforward, development of plot, mood, etc.
 Students should be able to recognize the rhetorical devices the author uses to influence the reader or enhance the author’s purpose.
 Students should be able to articulate the similarities and differences between the structure, author’s style and approach, order/sequence, approach to similar themes and ideas, etc. of fictional texts.
• RL.9-10.6. Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.
 When responding to a literary text, students should be able to consider and reflect upon the perspective/point of view of both the author’s background knowledge and cultural experience, and the reader’s background knowledge and cultural experience, making a comparison of the differences.
 Students should be able to identify different types of points of view (first-person, third-person limited, third-person omniscient, etc.) and narrators (reliable, unreliable) within a text or passage.
 Students should be able to demonstrate how the point of view within a text affects the reader and contributes to the overall mood, tone, and overall understanding of the text.
 Students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of how the speaker (reliable or unreliable) can shape a text and how the reader views the characters and/or events of the plot.
 Students should be able to articulate the author’s overall purpose for writing a text, how the author’s choices reflect his/her viewpoints, attitude, and biases, and how these perspectives shape the literary text.
 Students should be able to recognize the rhetorical devices the author uses to influence the reader or enhance the author’s purpose.
INTEGRATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND IDEAS
• RL.9-10.7. Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden’s “Musée des Beaux Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus).
 Schools and/ or teachers should make a variety of artistic mediums available to students.
 Students should spend time listening to/ viewing an audio, video, or live version of a text.
 Students should be familiar with the differences between a printed text and a visual medium and the effects upon the audience or reader.
 Students should be able to engage in a discussion comparing and contrasting the media version to the print version of a text.
 Students should be able to meaningfully respond to questions comparing and contrasting interpretations.
• RL.9-10.8. (Not applicable to literature)
• RL.9-10.9. Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare).
 Students should be familiar with different forms of fiction (i.e. novels, plays, articles, essays, stories, films, graphic novels, etc.) and genres (i.e. epic, poetry, novel, drama, short stories, etc.) of texts.
 Students should be able to articulate the differences and similarities between a modern story and a works that came before it, i.e. myths, legends, folktales, ancient texts, religious works, and Shakespearean texts.
 Students should be familiar with classic texts such as Homer’s Odyssey, Ovid’s Metamorphosis, Oedipus Rex by Sophocles, and works by Shakespeare.
 Students should be able to analyze analogies or allusions to other texts, including the meaning of the analogy or allusion and how it contributes to or helps clarify or support the themes and/or central idea of the text.
 Students should be able to compare and contrast a modern work to a traditional/ancient text to reveal differences in a modern text, including allusions and references to preceding text, style, treatment of themes and ideas, character archetypes, etc.
RANGE OF READING AND LEVEL OF TEXT COMPLEXITY
• RL.9-10.10. By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
 Students should be exposed to a wide range of fictional texts, including those considered below grade level, on grade level, and above grade level.
 Students should be encouraged to continue choosing higher-level texts, or those that continue to challenge the individual student.
 Students should be able to demonstrate proficiency in the skills outlined in this section.

READING: INFORMATIONAL TEXT
KEY IDEAS AND DETAILS
• RI.9-10.1. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to read a non-fictional passage or text, understand and articulate what the text directly as well as indirectly states in order to make an assumption about a passage or text as a whole.
 Students should be able to pull and cite the text to thoroughly support the student’s response.
• RI.9-10.2. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to articulate the central idea(s) of a nonfiction text, providing specifics from the text to support the response.
 Students should be able to articulate how specific characters, setting, and elements of the plot reveal and contribute to the central idea of the text.
 Students should be able to write a summary of the text that is free of bias and personal opinions.
• RI.9-10.3. Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.
 Students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of how key individuals, events, or ideas “come to life” in a text.
 Students should be able to identify and pull examples or quotes that contribute to the overall quality and the reader’s understanding of a text.
 Students should be able to identify the use of rhetorical devices.
 Students should be able to articulate how an author structures a series of ideas or events, makes judgments, provides opinions, and/or seeks to explain, inform, or influence the reader.
CRAFT AND STRUCTURE
• RI.9-10.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).
 Students should be able to identify the use and effect of figurative language, i.e. metaphor, simile, personification, imagery, hyperbole, etc. in a text.
 Students should be able to demonstrate the meaning of a word or phrase within the passage, based upon the context clues of the sentence.
 Students should be able to identify shades of meaning of words and phrases, and how the shade of meaning affects the tone of the passage or text as a whole.
 Students should be able to identify the mood and tone of a passage, and the meaning and impact of word choice on the mood and tone of the passage or text as a whole.
 Students should be able to identify the use of jargon, slang, cliché, idioms, analogies, rhetoric (i.e. colloquialisms, biased language, epithets).
 Students should be able to articulate how the diction helps to support and illuminate the meaning or idea of a text.
• RI.9-10.5. Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).
 Students should be familiar with the structure of different types of non-fiction texts, i.e. articles, biographies, essays, autobiographies, reference materials.
 Students should be able to recognize and articulate how a particular section of a text further develops the author’s reason for writing the text, the development of the overall purpose of the text, and how the particular structure contributes to the understanding and enjoyment of the text.
 Students should be able to recognize topic sentences and supporting details within a paragraph, including facts, statistics, anecdotes, allusions, etc. and articulate how the use of these details help to support the point of the paragraph and further the understanding of both the paragraph and the text as a whole.
 Students should be able to determine the purpose of the structure of a text, and how the particular structure helps to illustrate the author’s claim, support an author’s argument, or delineates an author’s purpose.
• RI.9-10.6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
 Students should be able to recognize and define different types of point of view (i.e. first person, third person limited, third person omniscient).
 Students should be able to articulate the purpose of a text, (i.e to inform, to persuade, to entertain).
 Students should be able to recognize and indicate how the point of view affects the reader’s interpretation or understanding of the text.
 Students should be able to recognize words, phrases, and passages that articulate the purpose of the text.
 Students should be able to determine the diction that reveals the author’s viewpoint or purpose.
 Students should be able to articulate how the author’s use of diction, supporting details, construction of a piece, etc. acknowledges and responds to conflicting information or viewpoints from the author’s own.
 Students should be familiar with the basics of rhetoric, including intent, ethos, pathos, and logos.
 Students should be familiar with different types of rhetorical devices, such as rhetorical questions, analogy, allusion, figurative language, parallelism, oxymoron, antithesis, apostrophe, etc.
INTEGRATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND IDEAS
• RI.9-10.7. Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.
 Students should be exposed to information in a variety of formats or media (i.e. charts, graphs, statistics, movies, essays, photos, PowerPoint, websites, etc.)
 Students should be able to synthesize this information to help them articulate understanding of a topic or issue.
 Students should be able to compare and contrast the effectiveness of different types of multimedia formats, including interpretation of the piece and the effect on the audience.
 Students should be able to synthesize the details emphasized in each account, articulating the effectiveness of each account, how the effectiveness was achieved, and what devices were used to achieve the overall effectiveness of each medium.
• RI.9-10.8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.
 Students should be familiar with the techniques of propaganda, including assertion, bandwagon, glittering generalities, card stacking, stereotyping, circular reasoning, logical fallacies, etc.
 Students should be able to recognize and articulate the argument or claims made within a specific text.
 Students should be able to identify and pull specific quotes or passages from a text and explain how the quote or passage contributes to the argument or claim of the text.
 Students should be able to articulate whether a claim has sufficient evidence and reasoning to support it.
• RI.9-10.9. Analyze seminal U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington’s Farewell Address, the Gettysburg Address, Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech, King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”), including how they address related themes and concepts.
 Students should be able to compare and contrast the effectiveness of different types of genres and formats of non-fiction texts from various perspectives.
 Students should be able to understand the meaning and purpose behind different types of non-fiction texts, in order to articulate how point of view and purpose contributes to the author’s presentation of events.
 Students should be able to articulate how well an author supported his or her claims in a text, who was more effective, and how the author effectively used rhetoric to win the reader to his or her “side.”
RANGE OF READING AND LEVEL OF TEXT COMPLEXITY
• RI.9-10.10. By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
 Students should be exposed to a wide range of non-fiction texts, including those considered below grade level, on grade level, and above grade level.
 Students should be encouraged to continue choosing higher-level texts, or those that continue to challenge the individual student.
 Students should be able to demonstrate proficiency in the skills outlined in this section.

WRITING
TEXT TYPES AND PURPOSES
• W.9-10.1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
o Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
o Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
o Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
o Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
o Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
• W.9-10.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
o Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
o Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
o Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
o Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
o Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
o Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
• W.9-10.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
o Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
o Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
o Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.
o Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
o Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.
PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF WRITING
• W.9-10.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
• W.9-10.5. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
• W.9-10.6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.
RESEARCH TO BUILD AND PRESENT KNOWLEDGE
• W.9-10.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
 Students must have access to a variety of print and digital sources.
 Students should be able to generate a variety of research questions and be able to narrow down to one specific, researchable research question.
 Students should then be able to use the research question to guide their print and digital search, while generating additional relevant research questions in the process.
• W.9-10.8. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
 Students should be able to identify and gather quotes and data that helps contribute to the research topic or question.
 Students should be able to use search engines such as Google, Yahoo, and others to help gather and filter information for use in a research report.
 Students should be able to accurately assess the credibility of a source, either in print or digital format.
 Students should be familiar with the idea of plagiarism and how to avoid it.
 Students should be able to create a bibliography of information or sources based upon their research.
 Students should be familiar with the rules and guidelines of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA).
 Students should be able to insert citations and create a bibliography of research using the MLA or APA format.
• W.9-10.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
o Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”).
o Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”).
RANGE OF WRITING
• W.9-10.10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING
COMPREHENSION AND COLLABORATION
• SL.9-10.1. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
o Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
o Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
o Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
o Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.
• SL.9-10.2. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.
 Students should have access to information from several sources, print and digital, about a particular topic.
 Students should be able to synthesize the information and present it in different formats (i.e. PowerPoint, website, oral presentation, graph, chart, digital short, WebQuest, etc.)
• SL.9-10.3. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.
 Students should be able to recognize and articulate a speaker’s argument or claim.
 Students should be able to articulate how a speaker’s claims and arguments contribute to the believability of a text.
 Students should be able to recognize and articulate the argument or claims made within a specific text.
 Students should be able to recognize irrelevant or inconsequential evidence or support, including the use of rhetorical devices and propaganda.
 Students should observe and evaluate other students’ presentations and be able to articulate the main points and purpose of the presentation.
 Students should be able to articulate whether a claim has sufficient evidence and reasoning to support it.
 Students should be able to understand the meaning and purpose behind different presentations, both oral and written, in order to articulate how point of view and purpose contributes to the author’s presentation of events.
 Students should be able to articulate how well an author supported his or her claims and how the author effectively used rhetoric to win the reader to his or her “side.”

PRESENTATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND IDEAS
• SL.9-10.4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.
 Students should be able to gather and organize their claims and findings for a research project.
 Students should be able to present their claims and findings in an organized visual format, such as an oral presentation using a poster with images, facts, and details to visually represent findings.
 Students should be able to present this information in a clear and succinct manner, using good eye contact, correct volume and clear pronunciation.
• SL.9-10.5. Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.
 Students should be able to present their claims and findings in an organized visual digital format, such as an oral presentation combined with a PowerPoint presentation (using graphics, images, music, sound).
• SL.9-10.6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.
 Students should be given the opportunity to present a “rough draft” of their work before presenting in class.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to revise and rework the presentation before presenting to the class.
 Students should have a good command of formal English in both written and oral formats.

LANGUAGE
CONVENTIONS OF STANDARD ENGLISH
• L.9-10.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
o Use parallel structure.*
o Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent; noun, relative, adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.
• L.9-10.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
o Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.
o Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
o Spell correctly.
KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE
• L.9-10.3. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
o Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA HANDBOOK, Turabian’s MANUAL FOR WRITERS) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.
VOCABULARY ACQUISITION AND USE
• L.9-10.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on GRADES 9–10 READING AND CONTENT, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
o Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
o Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., ANALYZE, ANALYSIS, ANALYTICAL; ADVOCATE, ADVOCACY).
o Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.
o Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
• L.9-10.5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
o Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
o Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.
• L.9-10.6. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
 Students should be given a variety of vocabulary activities designed to expose students to unfamiliar words.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to identify vocabulary words and unfamiliar phrases within a text.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to research the meaning of a word and how it is used.
 Students should be supplied with or gather a list of grade-appropriate academic (i.e. common words used in testing—analyze, justify, reiterate, trace), and domain-specific (i.e. subject-specific words such as hypothesis, inference, ratify, ratio) words.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to use these words in the appropriate context.
 Students should be able to gather a personal list of unfamiliar vocabulary words.
 Students should be able to articulate the meaning of unfamiliar words based upon the context clues, connotation, or definition given.
 Students should be able to use previously unfamiliar words in an appropriate and accurate manner.

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