Secondary Solutions

Ideas, tips, and tools for the middle and high school English Language Arts teacher. Visit our store at www.4secondarysolutions.com!

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Using Appropriate Tone in Writing #engchat

One of the most difficult literary devices to recognize as well as convey is tone.  Helping students to identify tone in literature can be daunting, and helping students create the appropriate tone in their own original writing can also be a chore.  The following are some tips to help students grasp the concept of tone.  I have also created a free activity called “Using Appropriate Tone“ to help students grasp the idea of tone, and –trust me–kids will LOVE this activity!

The tone of a piece refers to the author’s attitude toward the subject.  Finding the tone can seem like a daunting task at first; however, you can ask yourself a few simple questions to help you figure it out.  Examples of these questions are: Is it formal or informal?  Serious or lighthearted?  Is there an emotion attached such as sadness, anger, lust, love, contentment, or consternation?  Is the author taking a humorous approach to the subject?  Is he or she being ironic, sarcastic, witty, contemplative, etc.?  To find the answers to these questions and properly identify the tone, you have to look at the author’s use of language including such tools as for word choice, phrasing, and use of or omission of details.

The same idea must be used when writing an original piece.  It is important that students use the correct diction (choice of words) to help convey the way they are feeling.  Ask students how difficult they find understanding a person’s tone through text message or emails.  Have they ever been confused by what the person is saying?  Have they assumed a person was serious when they were actually joking?  If the words are not laid out right, we can easily be confused by a person’s writing, and get the wrong idea of a person’s intentions or meaning.

Another way to think of tone is like tone being the background paper on which you write a note.  For example, if you are writing a note telling your mother how much you love her and appreciate her, and in the end, ask to borrow the car keys for the night, you may want to write your note on a pink, flowery piece of paper rather than on the back of a cardboard pizza box you pulled out of the trash.  The choice of paper gives the reader an idea of the message you are sending.  Similarly, you don’t want to give someone a note to let them know you would rather just “be friends” on a piece of pink paper with red hearts!  The words you choose to use in your writing act like those pieces of paper — you must choose your words wisely in order to get the right point across.

For helping students grasp the concept of using the right tone, please download Using Appropriate Tone, free on TeachersPayTeachers!  If you love it, please leave feedback and tell others.

Thanks for stopping by!

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The Hunger Games Common Core Standards Based Guide Now Available!

One of our most-anticipated, highly requested Literature Guides is now available! Our Common Core and NCTE/IRA Standards-Based Literature Guides for The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins has now been released! (*Currently only available in PDF/E-Guide download.  Print version coming soon!) Over 300 pages of materials, designed for grades 7-9 including:

  • 19 specific Pre-Reading Ideas and Activity Prompts
  • Author Biography on Suzanne Collins with corresponding questions
  • Article on the Myth of Theseus with corresponding questions
  • Historical Context article on Propaganda
  • Historical Context article on Roman Influences
  • Allusions, Terminology, and Sayings from the novel (defined and explained)
  • Vocabulary lists with and without definitions
  • List of Characters with explanations
  • Note-Taking and Summarizing pages
  • Comprehension Check/Study Guide Questions for each Chapter
  • Standards Focus/Literary Analysis activities on Characters, In Medias Res, Building a Fictional World, Character Analysis, Literary Archetypes, Point of View, Conflict, Character Map, Map of the Setting, Inner Thoughts, Foreshadowing, and more
  • Assessment Preparation activities on Verb Tenses and Moods, Coordinate and Cumulative Adjectives, Etymology, Author’s Purpose, Writing with Purpose/Concise Word Choice, Reflective Writing, Word Choice, Audience, Writing Powerful Sentences, Showing Not Telling, and more
  • Three Different “Hands-On/Active” Activities
  • Reading and Vocabulary Quizzes
  • Final Tests
  • Teacher Guide with Sample Agenda
  • Summary of the Novel
  • Rubrics for Projects
  • Post-Reading Ideas and Alternative Assessment Ideas
  • and more!

To view sample pages and/or purchase now CLICK HERE!

Thanks for stopping by!

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Annotated Common Core Standards ELA, Grade 7

As promised, I have now completed the Annotated Common Core Standards for Grade 7! Again, I have tried to break some of the more vague standards into bite-sized chunks to help you understand them better, and thus, be able to implement them better.  Some of the standards were already pretty self-explanatory so I left those alone, but wherever you see the boxes are where I have tried to explain or articulate the expectation(s) of the standard.  If you find something particularly confusing, please email me and I will be happy to explain or articulate better, or add an explanation where there was none.  Hope it helps…please be sure to leave feedback; I would love to hear your thoughts!

P.S. For a pretty, printable version you can download for FREE (maybe even laminate as a poster or keep in a binder for reference)!  http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Annotated-Common-Core-Standards-for-ELA-Grade-7

Note: This project is in no way affiliated with the Common Core Initiative.  The Common Core Initiative was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, these guidelines.

GRADE 7
COMMON CORE STANDARDS: ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS

READING: LITERATURE
KEY IDEAS AND DETAILS
• RL.7.1. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to read a fictional passage or text, understand and articulate what the text directly, as well as indirectly states in order to make an assumption about the text.
 Students should be able to identify, extract, and cite the text to support the response.
• RL.7.2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to articulate the theme or central idea of a fictional text, providing specifics from the text to support the response.
 Students should be able to write a summary of the text that is free of bias and personal opinions.
• RL.7.3. Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot).
 Students should be able to describe the elements of plot and describe how a particular story or drama fits into the elements of plot structure.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to recognize how characters respond and change as the plot moves forward.
 Students should be able to articulate the effects characters’ decisions have on the plot, how the setting affects the characters and plot, how characters affect each other, etc.

CRAFT AND STRUCTURE
• RL.7.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g., alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama.
 Students should be able to identify the use of figurative language, i.e. metaphor, simile, personification, imagery, hyperbole, etc. in a text.
 Students should be able to demonstrate the meaning of a word or phrase within the passage, based upon the context clues of the sentence.
 Students should be able to identify shades of meaning of words and phrases.
 Students should be able to indentify rhyme, rhythm, repetition, and sound devices (alliteration, assonance, consonance, cacophony, onomatopoeia, etc.) within a text.
 Students should be able to demonstrate the ability to recognize and explain the meaning and impact of the meaning of specific word choice on a passage.
 Students should be able to articulate how figurative language and sound devices affect the reader and assist in the overall understanding and enjoyment of a text.
 Students should be able to identify the mood and tone of a passage, and the meaning and impact of word choice on the mood and tone of the passage.
• RL.7.5. Analyze how a drama’s or poem’s form or structure (e.g., soliloquy, sonnet) contributes to its meaning.
 Students must be able to identify theme, setting, and elements of plot.
 Students should be able to recognize elements that contribute to the theme, setting and plot within a drama or poem.
 Students should be able to articulate differences between dramatic texts (i.e. comedy, tragedy, historical, etc.).
 Students should be able to articulate the differences between dramatic elements (i.e. monologue, soliloquy, aside, dialogue).
 Students should be able to explain the differences between different types of poetry and poetic structures (i.e. sonnet, limerick, haiku, free verse, etc.).
 Students should be able to clearly articulate the effect of different types of drama and poetry on the audience.
 Students should be able to demonstrate how a particular act, scene, soliloquy, stanza, line, etc. fits into the overall structure of the plot, how it illustrates the theme(s) within the text, and how it creates an atmosphere within the text.
• RL.7.6. Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text.
 Students should be able to identify different types of points of view (first-person, third-person limited, third-person omniscient) and narrators (reliable, unreliable) within a text or passage.
 Students should be able to demonstrate how the point of view within a text affects the reader and contributes to the overall mood, tone, and overall understanding of the text.
 Students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of how the speaker (reliable or unreliable) can shape a text and how the reader views the characters and/or events of the plot.
INTEGRATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND IDEAS
• RL.7.7. Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in a film).
 Schools and/ or teachers should make audio and/or video versions of texts available to students.
 Students should spend time listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of a text.
 Students should be familiar with the differences between a printed text and a visual medium, and the effects upon the audience or reader.
 Students should be able to engage in a discussion comparing and contrasting the media version to the print version of a text.
 Students should be able to meaningfully respond to questions comparing and contrasting media versus print versions of a text.
• RL.7.8. (Not applicable to literature)
• RL.7.9. Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history.
 Students should be familiar with different forms of fiction (i.e. articles, essays, stories, films, graphic novels, etc.) and genres (i.e. epic, poetry, novel, drama, short stories, etc.) of texts.
 Students should be able to compare and contrast similar themes and topics across different forms and genres (i.e. comparing a novel to a short story of the same theme, a printed poem to an oral presentation of a poem, an essay to a documentary)
 Students should be able to articulate the differences between a fictional and a non-fictional text that focus on the same period or event(s), i.e. Comparing and contrasting Mildred D. Taylor’s Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry with the first-person accounts of sharecroppers in the South during the Depression)

RANGE OF READING AND LEVEL OF TEXT COMPLEXITY
• RL.7.10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
 Students should be exposed to a wide range of fictional texts, including those considered below grade level, on grade level, and above grade level.
 Students should be encouraged to continue choosing higher-level texts, or those that continue to challenge the individual student.
 Students should be able to demonstrate proficiency in the skills outlined in this section.

READING: INFORMATIONAL TEXT
KEY IDEAS AND DETAILS
• RI.7.1. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to read a non-fictional passage or text, understand and articulate what the text directly, as well as indirectly states in order to make an assumption about a passage or text as a whole.
 Students should be able to pull and cite the text to support the response.
• RI.7.2. Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to articulate the themes or central ideas of a fictional text, providing specifics from the text to support the response.
 Students should be able to write a summary of the text that is free of bias and personal opinions.
• RI.7.3. Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events).
 Students should be able to recognize and discuss key individuals (including recognizing those who are main or subordinate characters) in a text.
 Students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of how key individuals, events, or ideas “come to life” in a text.
 Students should be able to identify and pull examples or quotes that contribute to the overall quality and the reader’s understanding of a text.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to recognize how characters respond and change in the textual account.
 Students should be able to articulate the effects individual’s decisions have on the events, how the time-period or other factors affects the individuals’ outcome, how individuals interact and affect each other, how the events affect the individuals, etc.

CRAFT AND STRUCTURE
• RI.7.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.
 Students should be able to identify the use of figurative language, i.e. metaphor, simile, personification, imagery, hyperbole, etc. in a text.
 Students should be able to demonstrate the meaning of a word or phrase within the passage, based upon the context clues of the sentence.
 Students should be able to identify shades of meaning of words and phrases.
 Students should be able to demonstrate the ability to recognize and explain the meaning and impact of the meaning of specific word choice on a passage.
 Students should be able to identify the mood and tone of a passage, and the meaning and impact of word choice on the mood and tone of the passage.
• RI.7.5. Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas.
 Students should be familiar with the structure of different types of non-fiction texts, i.e. articles, biographies, essays, autobiographies, reference materials.
 Students should be able to recognize and articulate how a particular section of a text further develops the author’s reason for writing the text, the development of the overall purpose of the text, and how the particular structure contributes to the understanding and enjoyment of the text.
• RI.7.6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others.
 Students should be able to recognize and define different types of point of view (i.e. first person, third person limited, third person omniscient).
 Students should be able to articulate the purpose of a text, (i.e to inform, to persuade, to entertain).
 Students should be able to recognize and indicate how the point of view affects the reader’s interpretation or understanding of the text.
 Students should be able to recognize words, phrases, and passages that articulate the purpose of the text.
INTEGRATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND IDEAS
• RI.7.7. Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each medium’s portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words).
 Students should be exposed to information in a variety of formats or media (i.e. charts, graphs, statistics, movies, essays, photos, PowerPoint, websites, etc.)
 Students should be able to synthesize this information to help them articulate understanding of a topic or issue.
 Students should be able to compare and contrast the effectiveness of different types of multimedia formats.
 Students should be familiar with the basics of rhetoric, including intent, ethos, pathos, and logos.
 Students should be familiar with different types of rhetorical devices, such as rhetorical questioning, glittering generalities, bandwagon technique, etc.
• RI.7.8. Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims.
 Students should be able to recognize and articulate the argument or claims made within a specific text.
 Students should be able to identify and pull specific quotes or passages from a text and explain how the quote or passage contributes to the argument or claim of the text.
 Students should be able to articulate whether a claim has sufficient evidence and reasoning to support it.
• RI.7.9. Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts.
 Students should be able to compare and contrast the effectiveness of different types of genres and formats of non-fiction texts.
 Students should be able to understand the meaning and purpose behind different types of non-fiction texts, in order to articulate how point of view and purpose contributes to the author’s presentation of events.
 Students should be able to articulate how well an author supported his or her claims in a text, who was more effective, and how the author effectively used rhetoric to win the reader to his or her “side.”

RANGE OF READING AND LEVEL OF TEXT COMPLEXITY
• RI.7.10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
 Students should be exposed to a wide range of non-fiction texts, including those considered below grade level, on grade level, and above grade level.
 Students should be encouraged to continue choosing higher-level texts, or those that continue to challenge the individual student.
 Students should be able to demonstrate proficiency in the skills outlined in this section.

WRITING
TEXT TYPES AND PURPOSES
• W.7.1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
o Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
o Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
o Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence.
o Establish and maintain a formal style.
o Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
• W.7.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
o Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
o Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
o Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
o Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
o Establish and maintain a formal style.
o Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
• W.7.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
o Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
o Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
o Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
o Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
o Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.
PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF WRITING
• W.7.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
• W.7.5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
• W.7.6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources.
RESEARCH TO BUILD AND PRESENT KNOWLEDGE
• W.7.7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation.
 Students must have access to a variety of print and digital sources.
 Students should be able to generate a variety of research question and be able to narrow down to one specific, researchable research question.
 Students should then be able to use the research question to guide their print and digital search, while generating additional relevant research questions in the process.
• W.7.8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
 Students should be able to identify and gather quotes and data that helps contribute to the research topic or question.
 Students should be able to use search engines such as Google, Yahoo, and others to help gather and filter information for use in a research report.
 Students should be able to accurately assess the credibility of a source, either in print or digital format.
 Students should be familiar with the idea of plagiarism and how to avoid it.
 Students should be able to create a bibliography of information or sources based upon their research.
• W.7.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
o Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history”).
o Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g. “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims”).

RANGE OF WRITING
• W.7.10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING
COMPREHENSION AND COLLABORATION
• SL.7.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
o Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
o Follow rules for collegial discussions, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
o Pose questions that elicit elaboration and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant observations and ideas that bring the discussion back on topic as needed.
o Acknowledge new information expressed by others and, when warranted, modify their own views.
• SL.7.2. Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study.
 Students should be able to gather information about a particular topic.
 Students should be able to synthesize the information and present it in different formats (i.e. PowerPoint, website, oral presentation, graph, chart, digital short, WebQuest, etc.)
• SL.7.3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
 Students should be able to recognize and articulate a speaker’s argument or claim.
 Students should be able to articulate how a speaker’s claims and arguments contribute to the believability of a text.
 Students should be able to identify reasons and evidence to support a speaker’s argument or claim.

PRESENTATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND IDEAS
• SL.7.4. Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
 Students should be able to gather and organize their claims and findings for a research project.
 Students should be able to present their claims and findings in an organized visual format, such as an oral presentation using a poster with images, facts, and details to visually represent findings.
 Students should be able to present this information in a clear and succinct manner, using good eye contact, correct volume and clear pronunciation.
• SL.7.5. Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points.
 Students should be able to present their claims and findings in an organized visual format, such as a PowerPoint presentation (using graphics, images, music, sound) with the student giving an oral report, for example.
• SL.7.6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.
 Students should be given the opportunity to present a “rough draft” of their work before presenting in class.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to revise and rework the presentation before presenting to the class.

LANGUAGE
CONVENTIONS OF STANDARD ENGLISH
• L.7.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
o Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences.
o Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas.
o Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.*
• L.7.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
o Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives (e.g., IT WAS A FASCINATING, ENJOYABLE MOVIE but not HE WORE AN OLD[,] GREEN SHIRT).
o Spell correctly.
KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE
• L.7.3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
o Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.*
VOCABULARY ACQUISITION AND USE
• L.7.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on GRADE 7 READING AND CONTENT, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
o Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
o Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., BELLIGERENT, BELLICOSE, REBEL).
o Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
o Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
• L.7.5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
o Interpret figures of speech (e.g., literary, biblical, and mythological allusions) in context.
o Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonym/antonym, analogy) to better understand each of the words.
o Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., REFINED, RESPECTFUL, POLITE, DIPLOMATIC, CONDESCENDING).
• L.7.6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
 Students should be given a variety of vocabulary activities designed to expose students to unfamiliar words.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to identify vocabulary words and unfamiliar phrases within a text.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to research the meaning of a word and how it is used.
 Students should be supplied with or gather a list of grade-appropriate academic (i.e. common words used in testing—analyze, justify, reiterate, trace), and domain-specific (i.e. subject-specific words such as hypothesis, inference, ratify, ratio) words.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to use these words in the appropriate context.
 Students should be able to gather a personal list of unfamiliar vocabulary words.
 Students should be able to articulate the meaning of unfamiliar words based upon the context clues, connotation, or definition given.
 Students should be able to use previously unfamiliar words in an appropriate and accurate manner.

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