Secondary Solutions

Ideas, tips, and tools for the middle and high school English Language Arts teacher. Visit our store at www.4secondarysolutions.com!

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Using Appropriate Tone in Writing #engchat

One of the most difficult literary devices to recognize as well as convey is tone.  Helping students to identify tone in literature can be daunting, and helping students create the appropriate tone in their own original writing can also be a chore.  The following are some tips to help students grasp the concept of tone.  I have also created a free activity called “Using Appropriate Tone” to help students grasp the idea of tone, and –trust me–kids will LOVE this activity!

The tone of a piece refers to the author’s attitude toward the subject.  Finding the tone can seem like a daunting task at first; however, you can ask yourself a few simple questions to help you figure it out.  Examples of these questions are: Is it formal or informal?  Serious or lighthearted?  Is there an emotion attached such as sadness, anger, lust, love, contentment, or consternation?  Is the author taking a humorous approach to the subject?  Is he or she being ironic, sarcastic, witty, contemplative, etc.?  To find the answers to these questions and properly identify the tone, you have to look at the author’s use of language including such tools as for word choice, phrasing, and use of or omission of details.

The same idea must be used when writing an original piece.  It is important that students use the correct diction (choice of words) to help convey the way they are feeling.  Ask students how difficult they find understanding a person’s tone through text message or emails.  Have they ever been confused by what the person is saying?  Have they assumed a person was serious when they were actually joking?  If the words are not laid out right, we can easily be confused by a person’s writing, and get the wrong idea of a person’s intentions or meaning.

Another way to think of tone is like tone being the background paper on which you write a note.  For example, if you are writing a note telling your mother how much you love her and appreciate her, and in the end, ask to borrow the car keys for the night, you may want to write your note on a pink, flowery piece of paper rather than on the back of a cardboard pizza box you pulled out of the trash.  The choice of paper gives the reader an idea of the message you are sending.  Similarly, you don’t want to give someone a note to let them know you would rather just “be friends” on a piece of pink paper with red hearts!  The words you choose to use in your writing act like those pieces of paper — you must choose your words wisely in order to get the right point across.

For helping students grasp the concept of using the right tone, please download Using Appropriate Tone, free on TeachersPayTeachers!  If you love it, please leave feedback and tell others.

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The Hunger Games Common Core Standards Based Guide Now Available!

One of our most-anticipated, highly requested Literature Guides is now available! Our Common Core and NCTE/IRA Standards-Based Literature Guides for The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins has now been released! (*Currently only available in PDF/E-Guide download.  Print version coming soon!) Over 300 pages of materials, designed for grades 7-9 including:

  • 19 specific Pre-Reading Ideas and Activity Prompts
  • Author Biography on Suzanne Collins with corresponding questions
  • Article on the Myth of Theseus with corresponding questions
  • Historical Context article on Propaganda
  • Historical Context article on Roman Influences
  • Allusions, Terminology, and Sayings from the novel (defined and explained)
  • Vocabulary lists with and without definitions
  • List of Characters with explanations
  • Note-Taking and Summarizing pages
  • Comprehension Check/Study Guide Questions for each Chapter
  • Standards Focus/Literary Analysis activities on Characters, In Medias Res, Building a Fictional World, Character Analysis, Literary Archetypes, Point of View, Conflict, Character Map, Map of the Setting, Inner Thoughts, Foreshadowing, and more
  • Assessment Preparation activities on Verb Tenses and Moods, Coordinate and Cumulative Adjectives, Etymology, Author’s Purpose, Writing with Purpose/Concise Word Choice, Reflective Writing, Word Choice, Audience, Writing Powerful Sentences, Showing Not Telling, and more
  • Three Different “Hands-On/Active” Activities
  • Reading and Vocabulary Quizzes
  • Final Tests
  • Teacher Guide with Sample Agenda
  • Summary of the Novel
  • Rubrics for Projects
  • Post-Reading Ideas and Alternative Assessment Ideas
  • and more!

To view sample pages and/or purchase now CLICK HERE!

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Annotated version of the Common Core Standards for English Language Arts, Grade 8

As promised, I have now completed the Annotated Common Core Standards for Grade 8!  The more vague standards have been broken down into bite-sized chunks to help you understand them better, and thus, be able to implement them better.  Some of the standards were already pretty self-explanatory so I left those alone, but wherever you see the boxes are where I have tried to explain or articulate the expectation(s) of the standard.  If you find something particularly confusing, please email me and I will be happy to explain or articulate better, or add an explanation where there was none.  Hope it helps…please be sure to leave feedback; I would love to hear your thoughts!

Note: This project is in no way affiliated with the Common Core Initiative.  The Common Core Initiative was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, these guidelines.

P.S. For a pretty, printable version you can download for FREE (maybe even laminate as a poster or keep in a binder for reference)! visit http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Annotated-Common-Core-Standards-for-ELA-Grade-8

GRADE 8
COMMON CORE STANDARDS: ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS

READING: LITERATURE
KEY IDEAS AND DETAILS
• RL.8.1. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to read a fictional passage or text, understand and articulate what the text directly as well as indirectly states in order to make an assumption about the text.
 Students should be able to identify, extract, and cite text to support the response.
• RL.8.2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to articulate the theme(s) or central idea(s) of a fictional text, providing specifics from the text to support the response.
 Students should be able to articulate how specific characters, setting, and elements of the plot reveal and contribute to the theme of the text.
 Students should be able to write a summary of the text that is free of bias and personal opinions.
• RL.8.3. Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.
 Students should be able to identify dialogue in drama or fiction.
 Students should be able to articulate how certain incidents in a text further the plot, reveal character traits directly or indirectly, or provokes characters to make decisions based upon the incident.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to recognize how characters respond and change as the plot moves forward.
 Students should be able to articulate the effects characters’ decisions have on the plot, how the setting affects the characters and plot, how characters affect each other, etc.
CRAFT AND STRUCTURE
• RL.8.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.
 Students should be able to identify the use of figurative language, i.e. metaphor, simile, personification, imagery, hyperbole, etc. in a text.
 Students should be able to demonstrate the meaning of a word or phrase within the passage, based upon the context clues of the sentence.
 Students should be able to identify shades of meaning of words and phrases.
 Students should be able to articulate the meaning and impact of diction, including the use of dialect, slang, accents, etc.
 Students should be able to demonstrate the ability to recognize and explain the meaning and impact of the meaning of specific word choice on a passage.
 Students should be able to analyze analogies or allusions to other texts, including the meaning of the analogy or allusion and how it contributes to or helps clarify or support the themes and/or central idea of the text.
 Students should be able to articulate how figurative language and sound devices affect the reader and assist in the overall understanding and enjoyment of a text.
 Students should be able to identify the mood and tone of a passage, and the meaning and impact of word choice on the mood and tone of the passage.
• RL.8.5. Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style.
 Students must be able to identify theme, setting, and elements of plot.
 Students should be able to recognize elements that contribute to the theme, setting and plot within a drama or poem.
 Students should be able to articulate differences in structure between fictional texts, including drama, poetry, novels, short stories, etc.
 Students should be able to articulate the differences between dramatic elements (i.e. monologue, soliloquy, aside, dialogue).
 Students should be able to explain the differences between different types of poetry and poetic structures (i.e. sonnet, limerick, haiku, free verse, etc.).
 Students should be able to identify the meaning of style within a text, including voice, diction, tone, sentence fluency, use of punctuation, use of narrator and point of view, etc.
 Students should be able to articulate by comparing and contrasting the similarities and differences between the structure, author’s style and approach, order/sequence, approach to similar themes and ideas, etc.
• RL.8.6. Analyze how differences in the points of view of the characters and the audience or reader (e.g., created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor.
 Students should be able to identify different types of points of view (first-person, third-person limited, third-person omniscient, etc.) and narrators (reliable, unreliable) within a text or passage.
 Students should be able to demonstrate how the point of view within a text affects the reader and contributes to the overall mood, tone, and overall understanding of the text.
 Students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of how the speaker (reliable or unreliable) can shape a text and how the reader views the characters and/or events of the plot.
 Students should be able to articulate the meaning of and differences between dramatic irony, verbal irony, and situational irony.
 Students should be able to identify the use of irony within a text.
 Students should be able to articulate the effect of irony on the reader or audience, what the author’s intent was by using the irony, and how the irony can be interpreted differently based upon the reader or audience’s background knowledge.
INTEGRATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND IDEAS
• RL.8.7. Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors.
 Schools and/ or teachers should make audio and/or video versions of texts available to students.
 Students should spend time listening to/ viewing an audio, video, or live version of a text.
 Students should be familiar with the differences between a printed text and a visual medium and the effects upon the audience or reader.
 Students should be able to engage in a discussion comparing and contrasting the media version to the print version of a text.
 Students should be able to meaningfully respond to questions comparing and contrasting media versus print versions of a text.
 Students should be able to engage in a meaningful discussion about acting and directing choices, comparing the students’ own views and interpretation of the text to the director’s/actor’s.
• RL.8.8. (Not applicable to literature)
• RL.8.9. Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new.
 Students should be familiar with different forms of fiction (i.e. articles, essays, stories, films, graphic novels, etc.) and genres (i.e. epic, poetry, novel, drama, short stories, etc.) of texts.
 Students should be able to articulate the differences and similarities between a modern story and a works that came before it, i.e. myths, legends, folktales, ancient texts, religious works.
 Students should be able to analyze analogies or allusions to other texts, including the meaning of the analogy or allusion and how it contributes to or helps clarify or support the themes and/or central idea of the text.
 Students should be able to compare and contrast a modern work to a traditional/ancient text to reveal differences in a modern text, including allusions and references to preceding text, style, treatment of themes and ideas, character archetypes, etc.

RANGE OF READING AND LEVEL OF TEXT COMPLEXITY
• RL.8.10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
 Students should be exposed to a wide range of fictional texts, including those considered below grade level, on grade level, and above grade level.
 Students should be encouraged to continue choosing higher-level texts, or those that continue to challenge the individual student.
 Students should be able to demonstrate proficiency in the skills outlined in this section.

READING: INFORMATIONAL TEXT
KEY IDEAS AND DETAILS
• RI.8.1. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to read a non-fictional passage or text, understand and articulate what the text directly as well as indirectly states in order to make an assumption about a passage or text as a whole.
 Students should be able to pull and cite the text to support the response.
• RI.8.2. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to articulate the central idea(s) of a nonfiction text, providing specifics from the text to support the response.
 Students should be able to articulate how specific characters, setting, and elements of the plot reveal and contribute to the central idea of the text.
 Students should be able to write a summary of the text that is free of bias and personal opinions.
• RI.8.3. Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories).
 Students should be able to recognize and discuss key individuals (including recognizing those who are main or subordinate individuals) in a text.
 Students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of how key individuals, events, or ideas “come to life” in a text.
 Students should be able to identify and pull examples or quotes that contribute to the overall quality and the reader’s understanding of a text.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to recognize how individuals respond and change in the textual account.
 Students should be able to articulate the effects individual’s decisions have on the events, how the time-period or other factors affects the individuals’ outcome, how individuals interact and affect each other, how the events affect the individuals, etc.
 Students should be able to identify and articulate comparisons between two or more accounts of the life of an individual.
 Students should be able to identify and articulate comparisons between two or more accounts of the same event.
 Students should be able to articulate how the same event affected individuals differently.
CRAFT AND STRUCTURE
• RI.8.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.
 Students should be able to identify the use of figurative language, i.e. metaphor, simile, personification, imagery, hyperbole, etc. in a text.
 Students should be able to demonstrate the meaning of a word or phrase within the passage, based upon the context clues of the sentence.
 Students should be able to identify shades of meaning of words and phrases.
 Students should be able to demonstrate the ability to recognize and explain the meaning and impact of the meaning of specific word choice on a passage.
 Students should be able to identify the mood and tone of a passage, and the meaning and impact of word choice on the mood and tone of the passage.
 Students should be able to recognize common analogies or well-known allusions to other texts.
 Students should be able to articulate how the use of allusion helps to support the text and illuminate the meaning or idea of a text.
• RI.8.5. Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept.
 Students should be familiar with the structure of different types of non-fiction texts, i.e. articles, biographies, essays, autobiographies, reference materials.
 Students should be able to recognize and articulate how a particular section of a text further develops the author’s reason for writing the text, the development of the overall purpose of the text, and how the particular structure contributes to the understanding and enjoyment of the text.
 Students should be able to recognize topic sentences and supporting details within a paragraph, including facts, statistics, anecdotes, allusions, etc. and articulate how the use of these details help to support the point of the paragraph and further the understanding of both the paragraph and the text as a whole.
• RI.8.6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.
 Students should be able to recognize and define different types of point of view (i.e. first person, third person limited, third person omniscient).
 Students should be able to articulate the purpose of a text, (i.e to inform, to persuade, to entertain).
 Students should be able to recognize and indicate how the point of view affects the reader’s interpretation or understanding of the text.
 Students should be able to recognize words, phrases, and passages that articulate the purpose of the text.
 Students should be able to determine the diction that reveals the author’s viewpoint or purpose.
 Students should be able to articulate how the author’s use of diction, supporting details, construction of a piece, etc. acknowledges and responds to conflicting information or viewpoints from the author’s own.
INTEGRATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND IDEAS
• RI.8.7. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea.
 Students should be exposed to information in a variety of formats or media (i.e. charts, graphs, statistics, movies, essays, photos, PowerPoint, websites, etc.)
 Students should be able to synthesize this information to help them articulate understanding of a topic or issue.
 Students should be able to compare and contrast the effectiveness of different types of multimedia formats, including interpretation of the piece and the effect on the audience.
• RI.8.8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.
 Students should be familiar with the basics of rhetoric, including intent, ethos, pathos, and logos.
 Students should be familiar with different types of rhetorical devices, such as rhetorical questioning, analogy, allusion, glittering generalities, bandwagon technique, etc.
 Students should be able to recognize and articulate the argument or claims made within a specific text.
 Students should be able to identify and pull specific quotes or passages from a text and explain how the quote or passage contributes to the argument or claim of the text.
 Students should be able to articulate whether a claim has sufficient evidence and reasoning to support it.
• RI.8.9. Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation.
 Students should be able to compare and contrast the effectiveness of different types of genres and formats of non-fiction texts.
 Students should be able to understand the meaning and purpose behind different types of non-fiction texts, in order to articulate how point of view and purpose contributes to the author’s presentation of events.
 Students should be able to articulate how well an author supported his or her claims in a text, who was more effective, and how the author effectively used rhetoric to win the reader to his or her “side.”
RANGE OF READING AND LEVEL OF TEXT COMPLEXITY
• RI.8.10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
 Students should be exposed to a wide range of non-fiction texts, including those considered below grade level, on grade level, and above grade level.
 Students should be encouraged to continue choosing higher-level texts, or those that continue to challenge the individual student.
 Students should be able to demonstrate proficiency in the skills outlined in this section.

WRITING
TEXT TYPES AND PURPOSES
• W.8.1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
o Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
o Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
o Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
o Establish and maintain a formal style.
o Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
• W.8.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
o Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
o Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
o Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
o Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
o Establish and maintain a formal style.
o Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
• W.8.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
o Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
o Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
o Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events.
o Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
o Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.
PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF WRITING
• W.8.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
• W.8.5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
• W.8.6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others.
RESEARCH TO BUILD AND PRESENT KNOWLEDGE
• W.8.7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
 Students must have access to a variety of print and digital sources.
 Students should be able to generate a variety of research questions and be able to narrow down to one specific, researchable research question.
 Students should then be able to use the research question to guide their print and digital search, while generating additional relevant research questions in the process.
• W.8.8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
 Students should be able to identify and gather quotes and data that helps contribute to the research topic or question.
 Students should be able to use search engines such as Google, Yahoo, and others to help gather and filter information for use in a research report.
 Students should be able to accurately assess the credibility of a source, either in print or digital format.
 Students should be familiar with the idea of plagiarism and how to avoid it.
 Students should be able to create a bibliography of information or sources based upon their research.
 Students should be familiar with the rules and guidelines of the Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA).
 Students should be able to insert citations and create a bibliography of research using the MLA or APA format.
• W.8.9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
o Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new”).
o Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced”).
RANGE OF WRITING
• W.8.10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING
COMPREHENSION AND COLLABORATION
• SL.8.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
o Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
o Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
o Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas.
o Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented.
• SL.8.2. Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation.
 Students should be able to gather information from several sources, print and digital, about a particular topic.
 Students should be able to synthesize the information and present it in different formats (i.e. PowerPoint, website, oral presentation, graph, chart, digital short, WebQuest, etc.)
 Students should observe and evaluate other students’ presentations and be able to articulate the main points and purpose of the presentation.
• SL.8.3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced.
 Students should be able to recognize and articulate a speaker’s argument or claim.
 Students should be able to articulate how a speaker’s claims and arguments contribute to the believability of a text.
 Students should be able to identify reasons and evidence to support a speaker’s argument or claim.
 Students should be able to recognize irrelevant or inconsequential evidence or support.
PRESENTATION OF KNOWLEDGE AND IDEAS
• SL.8.4. Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
 Students should be able to gather and organize their claims and findings for a research project.
 Students should be able to present their claims and findings in an organized visual format, such as an oral presentation using a poster with images, facts, and details to visually represent findings.
 Students should be able to present this information in a clear and succinct manner, using good eye contact, correct volume and clear pronunciation.
• SL.8.5. Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest.
 Students should be able to present their claims and findings in an organized visual format, such as a PowerPoint presentation (using graphics, images, music, sound) with the student giving an oral report, for example.

• SL.8.6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.
 Students should be given the opportunity to present a “rough draft” of their work before presenting in class.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to revise and rework the presentation before presenting to the class.
 Students should have a good command of formal English in both written and oral formats.

LANGUAGE
CONVENTIONS OF STANDARD ENGLISH
• L.8.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
o Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.
o Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice.
o Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood.
o Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.*
• L.8.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
o Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break.
o Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission.
o Spell correctly.
KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE
• L.8.3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
o Use verbs in the active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects (e.g., emphasizing the actor or the action; expressing uncertainty or describing a state contrary to fact).
VOCABULARY ACQUISITION AND USE
• L.8.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases based on GRADE 8 READING AND CONTENT, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
o Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
o Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., PRECEDE, RECEDE, SECEDE).
o Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
o Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
• L.8.5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
o Interpret figures of speech (e.g. verbal irony, puns) in context.
o Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words.
o Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., BULLHEADED, WILLFUL, FIRM, PERSISTENT, RESOLUTE).
• L.8.6. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
 Students should be given a variety of vocabulary activities designed to expose students to unfamiliar words.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to identify vocabulary words and unfamiliar phrases within a text.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to research the meaning of a word and how it is used.
 Students should be supplied with or gather a list of grade-appropriate academic (i.e. common words used in testing—analyze, justify, reiterate, trace), and domain-specific (i.e. subject-specific words such as hypothesis, inference, ratify, ratio) words.
 Students should demonstrate the ability to use these words in the appropriate context.
 Students should be able to gather a personal list of unfamiliar vocabulary words.
 Students should be able to articulate the meaning of unfamiliar words based upon the context clues, connotation, or definition given.
 Students should be able to use previously unfamiliar words in an appropriate and accurate manner.

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